Existence, Evolution, History and Impact of Ebola Virus Disease on Humans: A Mini Review

Volume: 10 | Issue: 01 | Year 2024 | Subscription
International Journal of Environmental Chemistry
Received Date: 05/01/2024
Acceptance Date: 05/08/2024
Published On: 2024-06-10
First Page: 1
Last Page: 5

Journal Menu

By: Asif Bilal, Ishrat Nazar, Asad Abbas, Hafiza Rabia, Aisha Rafique, Ayesha Saddiqa, Kashif Ali, and Muhammad Kaleem Ullah

University of Okara, Pakistan
Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan

Abstract

The Ebola virus, a zoonotic virus belonging to the Filoviridae family, is predominantly found in the Congo, Sudan, and various other regions of Africa. This highly virulent virus poses a significant threat to human health, with infection typically occurring through direct contact with animals, particularly bats. The disease caused by the Ebola virus, known as Ebola virus disease (EVD), manifests through a wide array of symptoms. Initial signs include hemorrhagic fever, fatigue, sore throat, and muscle pain. As the disease progresses, it can lead to severe liver and kidney impairment, exacerbating the patient’s condition. The mortality rate for EVD is alarmingly high, ranging from 25% to 90%, depending on the outbreak and the timeliness of medical intervention. Human-to-human transmission of the Ebola virus is facilitated through contact with an infected person’s blood, saliva, and other bodily fluids. This mode of transmission significantly contributes to the rapid spread of the disease during outbreaks. In response to this threat, numerous measures have been implemented to control the spread of the virus. These measures include isolation of infected individuals, use of personal protective equipment (PPE) by healthcare workers, and public health campaigns to educate communities about the dangers of the virus and the importance of hygiene practices.

Loading

Citation:

How to cite this article: Asif Bilal, Ishrat Nazar, Asad Abbas, Hafiza Rabia, Aisha Rafique, Ayesha Saddiqa, Kashif Ali, and Muhammad Kaleem Ullah, Existence, Evolution, History and Impact of Ebola Virus Disease on Humans: A Mini Review. International Journal of Environmental Chemistry. 2024; 10(01): 1-5p.

How to cite this URL: Asif Bilal, Ishrat Nazar, Asad Abbas, Hafiza Rabia, Aisha Rafique, Ayesha Saddiqa, Kashif Ali, and Muhammad Kaleem Ullah, Existence, Evolution, History and Impact of Ebola Virus Disease on Humans: A Mini Review. International Journal of Environmental Chemistry. 2024; 10(01): 1-5p. Available from:https://journalspub.com/publication/existence-evolution-history-and-impact-of-ebola-virus-disease-on-humans-a-mini-review/

Refrences:

  1. Ansari, A. A. (2014). Clinical features and pathobiology of Ebolavirus infection. Journal of autoimmunity 55, 1-9.
  2. Bilal, A. (2021). Rabies is a zoonotic disease: a literature review. Med. Health Aff 9.
  3. Bilal, A., Iftikhar, A., Ali, U., Naveed, N., Anjum, M. I., Fatima, U., Akbar, I., Saif-ur-Rehman, M., and Sajjad, M. K. (2021). Comparison of Different Covid-19 Vaccines Globally: An Overview. Journal of Gynecology and Women’s Health
  4. Bilal, A., and Ullah, M. K. (2021). Impacts of covid. Journal of Wildlife and Ecology 5, 135-138.
  5. Binder, R. A., Alarja, N. A., Robie, E. R., Kochek, K. E., Xiu, L., Rocha-Melogno, L., Abdelgadir, A., Goli, S. V., Farrell, A. S., and Coleman, K. K. (2020). Environmental and aerosolized severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 among hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 patients. The Journal of Infectious Diseases 222, 1798-1806.
  6. Brolin Ribacke, K. J., Saulnier, D. D., Eriksson, A., and Von Schreeb, J. (2016). Effects of the West Africa Ebola virus disease on health-care utilization–a systematic review. Frontiers in public health 4, 222.
  7. Gupta, S., Gupta, N., Yadav, P., and Patil, D. (2021). Ebola virus outbreak preparedness plan for developing Nations: Lessons learnt from affected countries. Journal of Infection and Public Health 14, 293-305.
  8. Hu, J., Lei, C., Chen, Z., Liu, W., Hu, X., Pei, R., Su, Z., Deng, F., Huang, Y., and Sun, X. (2020). Distribution of airborne SARS-CoV-2 and possible aerosol transmission in Wuhan hospitals, China. National Science Review 7, 1865-1867.
  9. Jacob, S. T., Crozier, I., Fischer, W. A., Hewlett, A., Kraft, C. S., Vega, M.-A. d. L., Soka, M. J., Wahl, V., Griffiths, A., and Bollinger, L. (2020). Ebola virus disease. Nature reviews Disease primers 6, 13.
  10. Jawad, M., Bilal, A., Khan, S., Rizwan, M., and Arshad, M. (2023). Prevalence and Awareness Survey of Tuberculosis in The Suspected Population of Bajaur Agency in Fata, Pakistan: Prevalence and Awareness Survey of Tuberculosis. Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences, 56-61.
  11. Johnson, K., Webb, P., Lange, J., and Murphy, F. (1977). Isolation and partial characterisation of a new virus causing acute haemorrhagic fever in Zaire. Lancet, 569-571.
  12. Kanapathipillai, R., Henao Restrepo, A. M., Fast, P., Wood, D., Dye, C., Kieny, M.-P., and Moorthy, V. (2014). Ebola vaccine—an urgent international priority. New England Journal of Medicine 371, 2249-2251.
  13. Khan, I., Bilal, A., Shakeel, K., and Malik, F. T. (2022). Effects of nickel toxicity on various organs of the Swiss albino mice. Uttar Pradesh Journal of Zoology 43, 1-12.
  14. Kotwa, J. D., Jamal, A. J., Mbareche, H., Yip, L., Aftanas, P., Barati, S., Bell, N. G., Bryce, E., Coomes, E., and Crowl, G. (2022). Surface and air contamination with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 from hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 patients in Toronto, Canada, March–May 2020. The Journal of infectious diseases 225, 768-776.
  15. Leroy, E. M., Kumulungui, B., Pourrut, X., Rouquet, P., Hassanin, A., Yaba, P., Délicat, A., Paweska, J. T., Gonzalez, J.-P., and Swanepoel, R. (2005). Fruit bats as reservoirs of Ebola virus. Nature 438, 575-576.
  16. Malvy, D., McElroy, A. K., de Clerck, H., Günther, S., and van Griensven, J. (2019). Ebola virus disease. The Lancet 393, 936-948.
  17. Mohseni, A. H., Taghinezhad-S, S., Xu, Z., and Fu, X. (2020). Body fluids may contribute to human-to-human transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2: evidence and practical experience. Chinese medicine 15, 1-4.
  18. Moon, S., Sridhar, D., Pate, M. A., Jha, A. K., Clinton, C., Delaunay, S., Edwin, V., Fallah, M., Fidler, D. P., and Garrett, L. (2015). Will Ebola change the game? Ten essential reforms before the next pandemic. The report of the Harvard-LSHTM Independent Panel on the Global Response to Ebola. The Lancet 386, 2204-2221.
  19. Qiu, X., Wong, G., Audet, J., Bello, A., Fernando, L., Alimonti, J. B., Fausther-Bovendo, H., Wei, H., Aviles, J., and Hiatt, E. (2014). Reversion of advanced Ebola virus disease in nonhuman primates with ZMapp. Nature 514, 47-53.
  20. Rajak, H., Jain, D. K., Singh, A., Sharma, A. K., and Dixit, A. (2015). Ebola virus disease: past, present and future. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 5, 337-343.
  21. Shoman, H., Karafillakis, E., and Rawaf, S. (2017). The link between the West African Ebola outbreak and health systems in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone: a systematic review. Globalization and health 13, 1-22.
  22. Siegel, R. L., Wagle, N. S., Cercek, A., Smith, R. A., and Jemal, A. (2023). Colorectal cancer statistics, 2023. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians 73, 233-254.
  23. Singh, G., Kumar, A., Singh, K., and Kaur, J. (2016). Retracted: Ebola virus: an introduction and its pathology. Reviews in medical virology 26, 49-56.
  24. Team, R. o. a. W. I. S. (1978). Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Sudan, 1976. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 56, 247.
  25. Team, W. E. R. (2016). After Ebola in West Africa—unpredictable risks, preventable epidemics. New England Journal of Medicine 375, 587-596.
  26. Walker, P. J., and Klement, E. (2015). Epidemiology and control of bovine ephemeral fever. Veterinary research 46, 1-19.
  27. Yamin, D., Gertler, S., Ndeffo-Mbah, M. L., Skrip, L. A., Fallah, M., Nyenswah, T. G., Altice, F. L., and Galvani, A. P. (2015). Effect of Ebola progression on transmission and control in Liberia. Annals of internal medicine 162, 11-17.